ITP Treatment using Chinese Herbs
In ITP treatment, what matters most in Chinese herbal formulation is the clinical presentation of the patient, which then determines the herbs and herbal formulations to consider. We lay out below some herbs for which some research has been done to explore their effects on ITP.
Agrimony 仙鹤草 for ITP
Agrimony contains agrimonin and flavonoids which have hemostatic effects. Vitexin, quercetin O-galloyl-hexoside and kaempferol O-acetyl-hexosyl-rhamnoside were found to have anti-inflammatory properties.
Radix Lithospermi 紫草 for ITP
Lithopspermi is able to inhibit PMA plus A23187-induced increase in proinflammatory cytokines IL6, IL8 and TNF-α expression in HMC1 cells. It is also able to reducd histamine, hence reducing vasodilation and vascular permeability. It helps to reduce inflammation and support hemostatic activity in ITP.
Cortex Moutan 牡丹皮 for ITP
Gallic acid is the major active ingredient from Cortex Moutan that can dose-dependently inhibit release of IL12-p40 and the functional surface marker expressions of CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86 from cytokine cocktail-activated moDC.
Gallic acid is also able to lower the concentration of hydrocortisone required to inhibit the maturation and activation of dendritic cells from monocytes.
Astragalus 黄芪 for ITP
Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) is the key active ingredient extracted from Astragalus. APS decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis induced by ochratoxin A. How it does this is by activating AMPK (5′-AMP-activated protein kinase), also known as a metabolic master switch, through which cells in mammals sense and decode changes in energy.
Literature has documented that astragalus has promising immunomodulatory ability to regulate innate immunity. Specifically, it is able to change levels of macrophages, NK cells, dendritic cells (DCs) and microglia. It also has an effect on acquired immunity, meaning it can tweak immunity by changing the dynamics in T and B lymphocytes.
Astragaloside IV is able to decrease the activity of high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) and down-regulated the shift of Th 2 to Th1 through increasing Foxp3 expression in CD4+CD25- Treg.
AST II is able to down-regulate the production of IL-2 and IFN-γ and the proliferation of splenic T cells in CTX-induced immunosuppressed mice.
Angelica Sinensis 当归 for ITP
Angelica or Dong Quai is able to reduce TNF-α levels, which is helpful in treating ITP, which is associated with high levels of Th1 cytokines. The active ingredient of Angelica Sinensis is called paeoniflorin, and is able to reduce IL1β, TNFα and ICAM1 levels.
Semen Cuscuta 菟丝子 for ITP
Kaempferol is a major flavonoid that is able to reduce cytokines and chemokines produced by LPS-stimulated dendritic cells without causing cytotoxicity on DCs.
DC maturation is also impaired by kaempferol (via reduced production of CD40, CD80 and CD86).
Furthermore, kaempferol abrogated the ability of LPS-stimulated DCs to promote Ag-specific T cell activation, both in vitro and in vivo.
In conclusion from one paper, we know that Semen Cuscata exhibits an immunosuppressive effect on DCs and that the active ingredient kaempferol attenuates DC function
This suggests that kaempferol has potential in the treatment of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases through the reduction of TNFα, IL6, IL12 p70 as well as some other chemokines.
Fructus Lycii 枸杞子 for ITP
Lycium barbarum can activate T cells, B cells, macrophages, NK cells and other major immune cells that regulate the body’s cellular immune function and humoral immune function.